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Реферат: Управление материальными ресурсами предприятия (RTF)  

Реферат: Управление материальными ресурсами предприятия (RTF)

11













EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

ii iaiaaeaeiaioo

Oaia: ? Oi?aaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie i?aaei?eyoey ?

































Niaea?aeaiea



Aaaaeaiea...............................................................
...............3

1. Nicaeaiea aacu nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia..........................................4

1.1. Aiaeec oeaiiinoe nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia...............................4

1.2. Ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiiai eiee/anoaa caeacia...............6

1.3. Auai? i?aaei?eyoee - iinoaaueeia..................................8

2. O?aiaiea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia , iiaeaioiaea eo e aeaeaeaieth...11

3. Yeiiiie/aneia eniieueciaaiea
?ano?nia................................16

4. Oi?aaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie ia i?eia?a eiie?aoiiai
i?aaei?eyoey......................................
................................22

Auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey.........
...........................................25

Nienie
eeoa?aoo?u..........................................................26









































Aaaaeaiea



Oi?aaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie i?aaei?eyoey ea?aao aieueooth ?ieue
a oi?aaeaiee i?aaei?eyoeai a oeaeii.

Iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie /anoue iai?ioiuo oiiaeia
i?aaei?eyoey, o.a. oao n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ua iieiinoueth
iio?aaeythony a eaaeaeii i?iecaiaenoaaiiii oeeeea, oeaeeeii ia?aiinyo
naith noieiinoue ia aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth e a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa
iaiytho eee oa?ytho naie iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa.

Aeey i?aaiecaoeee i?eaueueiie ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaiea
i?aaeeueiie e ?aaeueiie no?oeoo?u aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia
i?aaei?eyoey. A nia?aiaiiii iaiaaeaeiaioa nouanoaoao aieueoia eiee/anoai
aa?eaioia oi?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie i?aaei?eyoey.

A naiae ?aaioa, y iinoaaeea oeaeueth i?iaiaeece?iaaoue no?oeoo?o
nouanoaothueo iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie i?aaei?eyoey,
auaeaeeoue nenoaio e i?ineaaeeoue aeaeaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia io
iiiaioa ii?aaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaania/aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna nu?ueai e iaoa?eaeaie aei iiiaioa auoiaea eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa.

Aeinoeaeaiea ianoiyuae oeaee aiciiaeii iooai eiiieaeniiai aiaeeca
nouanoaothueo iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie i?aaei?eyoey,
ia?eiaee/iiai iaoa?eaea, noaoae e aiaeeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea ia aeaiioth
oaio.





















1. NICAeAIEA AACU NU?Uess E IAOA?EAEIA



1.1. Aiaeec oeaiiinoe nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia



Iaeaieueooth aeieth iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoey ninoaaeytho
iniiaiua iaoa?eaeu. E iei ioiinyony i?aaeiaou o?oaea, eaeouea ia
ecaioiaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee e ia?acothuea iniiaiia aa niaea?aeaiea. ( I?e
ecaioiaeaiea aaoiiiaeey - yoi iaoaee, noaeei, oeaiue e ae?.).

E aniiiiaaoaeueiui ioiinyony iaoa?eaeu, iio?aaeyaiua a i?ioeanna
ianeoaeeaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa eee aeiaaaeyaiua e iniiaiui iaoa?eaeai (
niaci/iua, iaoe?i/iua, oiaeiai/iua iaoa?eaeu, e?aneoaee e o. ae.).

I?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniauaiu nia?aiaiiie
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieeie, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui
iiaeaee?iaaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo iioieia n o/aoii aeeyiey ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia
aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae n?aaeu i?aaei?eyoey, a oaeaea ?ac?aaioea nenoai
oi?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie.

Nouanoaotho iniiaiua i?eioeeiu oi?ie?iaaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie:

1. Naiinoiyoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee - iinoaaueeia e i?aaei?eyoee
iio?aaeoaeae a eniieueciaaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia.

2. Naii?aaoee?iaaiea.

3. ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea e i?ioeaicao?aoiinoue.

4. Eiiieaeniinoue.

5. Iia?aoeaiinoue.

6. Aini?eei/eainoue e iao/ii-oaoie/aneiio i?ia?anno; e ae?.

Ia?a/eneaiiua i?eioeeiu aeieaeiu aeaenoaiaaoue iaeiia?aiaiii, eai iie
ii?aaeaeytho oneiaey ?aaiiaaniiai ninoiyiey e yooaeoeaiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu.

Aeey ?ac?aoaiey iniiaiuo i?iaeai a ?aieao nicaeaiey aacu nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia nouanoaotho iiiaiia?aciua iaoiaeu i?eiyoey ?aoaiey, a
iniaaiiinoe:

- ABC- aiaeec ( ia?aiia/aeueiue aiaeec);

- iaoiae ioeaiee ii nenoaia aaeeia;

- aiaeec noieiinoe nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia;

- iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee ?aoaiee.

?anniio?ei iiae?iaii aiaeec noieiinoe nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

Iaoiae aiaeeca noieiinoe /aua anaai i?eiaiyaony oiaaea, eiaaea o?aaoaony
nieaeaiea ecaea?aeae e oeaiu auioneaaiuo ecaeaeee n oeaeueth oeo/oaiey
?acoeueoaoia oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey eee oaaee/aiey
oainia nauoa aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

A ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca noieiinoe nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia iiaeao:

- i?iecieoe nie?auaiea cao?ao ia nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu;

- yeiiiieoueny ?aai/aa a?aiy i?e ecaioiaeaiee ecaeaeee ec yoiai nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia;

- iiauoaoueny ea/anoai aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea,

- i?iecieoe nieaeaiea cao?ao aeey ?aaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iaeiiai oaeiai ioeaii/iiai aiaeeca nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia, i?eaaaeaiiay ieaea, yaeyaony oeie/iie aeey inouanoaeaiey
aiaeeca ai iiiaeo iaeanoyo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

1. Ia iiaeaioiaeoaeueiii yoaia ioeaii/iiai aiaeeca nia/aea
oi?ioee?othony oeaee enneaaeiaaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea
auyniythony i?aaiecaoeeiiiua iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua ?aoaiey.

2. Caoai inouanoaeyaony nai? eioi?iaoeee i nianoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, a
oaeaea ia aiaeiae/iuo ecaeaeeyo, eniieuecoaiuo aeey n?aaiaiey.

3. Ia neaaeothuai yoaia, iin?aaenoaii enneaaeiaaiey oaeoe/aneiai
ninoiyiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, ane?uaathony neaaua ianoa a i?iecaiaenoaa
nianoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

4. Caoai auyaeythony i?aaeeiaeaiey ii oeo/oaieth ea/anoaa nianoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee e oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna aa i?iecaiaenoaa.

5. Iinea yoiai iiaeaa?aathony ioeaiea aiciiaeiua aa?eaiou ioiineoaeueii
aaee/eiu ?anoiaeia e aeioiaeia i?e ecaioiaeaiee nianoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

6. Caoai ec yoiai ianneaa iieaciie eioi?iaoeee auae?athony iaeaieaa
?aaeecoaiua ?aoaiey.

7. Iineaaeiei oaaii ioeaii/iiai aiaeeca nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia yaeyaony
aaaaeaiea yoiai iioeiaeueiiai aa?eaioa a i?iecaiaenoai.(2)





1.2. Ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiiai eiee/anoaa caeacia



?aoeeiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey e nauoa
a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a i?aaeii?aaeaeyao ia i?aaei?eyoee o?iaaiue
eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea,
nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, oaaee/aiea i?eauee e
?aioaaaeueiinoe. Yoei ii?aaeaeyaony ?ieue e cia/aiea
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey e nauoa a nenoaia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa.

Niaaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa iaiaoiaeeiuie iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie yaeyaony
ia/aeueiui caaiii i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, a nauo aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee - aai caaa?oaieai. Iiae iaoa?eaeueii- oaoie/aneei
niaaaeaieai i?aaei?eyoey iiieiaaony i?ioeann iaania/aiey aai anaie
aeaeaie iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneeo ?ano?nia a o?aaoaiua n?iee e a iauaiao,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ii?iaeueiiai inouanoaeaiey aai i?iecaiaenoaaiii-
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Io i?aaiecaoeee niaaaeaiey,
naiaa?aiaiiinoe iinooieaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia a i?iecaiaenoai a
iaiaoiaeeiii anni?oeiaioa, eiee/anoaa e aeieaeiiai ea/anoaa a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a caaenyo ?aaiiia?iue e ?eoie/iue auione aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee, aa ea/anoai e yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe eieeaeoeaa
i?aaei?eyoey.

Iniiaiie caaea/ae i?aaei?eyoey ii i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaieth
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneei niaaaeaieai yaeyaony naiaa?aiaiiia,
aania?aaieiia e eiiieaeoiia niaaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa anaie iaiaoiaeeiuie
iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie aeey inouanoaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna
a oi/iii niioaaonoaee n ooaa?aeaeaiiuie ieaiiauie caaeaieyie. I?e yoii
nai i?ioeann niaaaeaiey aeieaeai inouanoaeyoueny i?e ieieiaeueiuo
o?ainii?oii-neeaaeneeo ?anoiaeao e iaeeo/oai eniieueciaaiee
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia a i?iecaiaenoaa.



A i?ioeanna ieaie?iaaiey iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey
iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue:

1. Eaeea aeaeu iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia iaiaoiaeeiu aeey iaania/aiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiii - oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

2. Eiee/anoai iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, eioi?ia iio?aaoaony aeey
auiieiaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu.

3. Iaiaoiaeeiua ieiuaaee neeaaeneeo iiiauaiee aeey o?aiaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia.

4. Cao?aou ia iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia niaaaeaiea.

Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai iaoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiey eiee/anoaa caeacuaaaiuo
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia. Ana iie eiatho naie iniaaiiinoe, i?aeiouanoaa e
iaaeinoaoee, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oiau naa?a/ue a?aiy e
nie?aoeoue cao?aou.(8)

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee iioeiaeueiiai eiee/anoaa caeacia neaaeoao o/eouaaoue:

- iacaaeneiua io eiee/anoaa caeacia ?anoiaeu (F) , eioi?ua ia?acothony a
ea/anoaa iinoiyiiuo enoiaeiuo ?anoiaeia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey inouanoaeaiey
cai?ina i?aaeeaaaaiiai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, o/aoa e n?aaiaiey
i?aaeeiaeaiey, a oaeaea inouanoaeaiey naiiai i?ioeanna caeacia,

- i?ioeaioioth noaaeo ?anoiaeia aeey inouanoaeaiey neeaaeneiai o?aiaiey
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia (1),

- eaeueeoeyoeeiiioth i?ioeaioioth noaaeo (Z), eioi?ay niioaaonoaoao
aeaeaaiiio n?aaeiaio ia/eneaieth i?ioeaioia ca oiaa?u, o?aieiua ia
neeaaea,

- caeoii/ioth oeaio (P) ,neeaaee?iaaiiiai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

- e iauoth iio?aaiinoue a nu?uea e iaoa?eaeao a oa/aiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai
ia?eiaea (R).

Iioeiaeueiia eiee/anoai caeacia (q) yaeyaony oai naiui eiyooeoeeaioii,
eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo e naiui ieceei iauei ?anoiaeai (KL ) e e naiui ieceei
?anoiaeai aeey inouanoaeaiey i?ioeanna niaaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa nu?ueai
e iaoa?eaeaie ii eo caeaco (KB).

Iauea ?anoiaeu aeey inouanoaeaiey neeaaeneiai oicyenoaa KL, eioi?ua
caaenyo io noieiinoe neeaaee?iaaiiiai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, io ?anoiaeia
ia niaea?aeaiea neeaaeneeo caiania, io i?ioeaioiie noaaee e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe n?ieia o?aiaiey, ii?aaeaeythony eae:

?anoiaeu, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey inouanoaeaiey niaaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa
nu?ueai e iaoa?eaeaie, caaenyo io /anoiou iinooieaiey caeacuaaaiuo
iaoa?eaeia ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie:



Oaeei ia?acii, au?aaeaiea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iaueo ?anoiaeia aeey
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa nu?ueai e iaoa?eaeaie
eiaao aeae:





Iioeiaeueiia eiee/anoai caeacia iieo/atho iin?aaenoaii ii?aaeaeaiey
cia/aiey q ec yoiai au?aaeaiey iinea i?e?aaieaaiey e ioeth cia/aiey
K:(2)









1.3. Auai? i?aaei?eyoee - iinoaaueeia nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia



A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee iaeiie ec iniiaiuo caaea/ i?aaei?eieiaoaey
yaeyaony iioeiaeueiue auai? ec aieueoiai /enea i?aaei?eyoee -
iinoaaueeia, i?aaeeaaathueo naith i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay iiaeoiaeeo aeey
aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey, aeinoieiuo iinoaaueeia nu?uey e iieooaa?eeaoia,
aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee e i?. i?iaeoeoeee.

Aunoae ia?ie i?e auai?a i?aaei?eyoey - iinoaaueea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia
yaeythony neaaeothuea oaeoi?u:

- i?aaei?eyoea-caeac/ee aeieaeii iieoe ia aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey n
?acee/iuie i?aaei?eyoeyie-iinoaaueeaie nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia. Oaeei
ia?acii, iaania/eaaaony aiciiaeiinoue ecaaaeaoue iaeiinoi?iiiae
caaeneiinoe.

- o i?aaei?eyoey-caeac/eea aeieaeiu auoue aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey n
i?aaei?eyoeyie-iinoaaueeaie, ia?aie/aiiuie iaiaic?eiui eiee/anoaii
iinoaaie (neeaeee ca iioiaia eiee/anoai iinoaaee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia).

- eiee/anoai iinoaaueeia neaaeoao iioeiece?iaaoue.

Ii?aaeaeaiea iaoiaeia e oi?i niaaaeaiey caaeneo io neiaeiinoe
auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, ninoaaa eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee e iaoa?eaeia.

?anniio?ei iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecoaiua iaoiaeu e oi?iu:

1. Caeoiea oiaa?a (iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia) iaeiie ia?oeae.

I?aaeiieaaaao iinoaaeo oiaa?ia aieueoie ia?oeae ca iaeei ?ac (iioiaua
caeoiee ia oiaa?ii-nu?ueaauo ae?aeao, aoeoeeiiao, o iinoaaueeia e ae?.).
I?aeiouanoaa: i?inoioa ioi?ieaiey aeieoiaioia, aa?aioey iinoaaee anae
ia?oee, iiauoaiiua oi?aiaua neeaeee.

Iaaeinoaoee: aieueoay iio?aaiinoue a neeaaeneeo iiiauaieyo, caiaaeeaiea
iai?a/eaaaiinoe eaieoaea.

2. ?aaoey?iua caeoiee iaeeeie ia?oeyie. A yoii neo/aa iieoiaoaeue
caeacuaaao iaiaoiaeeiia eiee/anoai oiaa?ia, eioi?ia iinoaaeyaony aio
ia?oeyie a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea. Iniiaiua i?aeiouanoaa:
onei?yaony iai?a/eaaaiinoue eaieoaea, oae eae oiaa?u iiea/eaathony ii
ia?a iinooieaiey ioaeaeueiuo ia?oee; aeinoeaaaony yeiiiiey neeaaeneeo
iiiauaiee e cao?ao ia niaea?aeaiea eceeoieo caiania. Iaaeinoaoee:
aa?iyoiinoue caeaca ecauoi/iiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a; iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iieaou anaai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a, ii?aaeaeaiiiai a caeaca.

3. Aaeaiany/iua caeoiee ii eioe?iai/iui aaaeiiinoyi. Eniieuecothony aeey
caeoiee aeaoaauo e auno?i eniieuecoaiuo oiaa?ia. I?aeiouanoaa:
nieaeaiea cao?ao ia neeaaee?iaaiea e o?aiaiea; onei?aiea iai?a/eaaaiinoe
eaieoaea; naiaa?aiaiiinoue iinoaaie.

4. Iieo/aiea oiaa?a ii ia?a iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Yoio iaoiae iioiae ia
?aaoey?ioth iinoaaeo oiaa?ia, ii oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie
iniaaiiinoyie:

- eiee/anoai oiaa?a no?iai ia onoaiaaeeaaaony, a ii?aaeaeyaony
i?eaeeceoaeueii;

- iiea/eaaaony oieueei iinoaaeaiiia eiee/anoai oiaa?a;

- ii enoa/aiee n?iea eiio?aeoa caeac/ee ia iaycai i?eieiaoue e
iiea/eaaoue oiaa?u, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue iinoaaeaiu.

I?aeiouanoaa: ionoonoaea no?iaeo iaycaoaeuenoa ii caeoiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai
eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia; onei?aiea iai?ioa eaieoaea; ieieioi ?aaiou ii
ioi?ieaieth aeieoiaioia.(3)

I?ioeaaeo?a iieo/aiey e ioeaiee i?aaeeiaeaiee io iioaioeeaeueiuo
iinoaaueeia iiaeao auoue i?aaieciaaia ii-?aciiio. Iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiuie e yooaeoeaiuie yaeythony neaaeothuea:

1. Eiieo?aioiua oi?ae (oaiaei?u) - i?iaiaeyony a neo/aa, anee
i?aaeiieaaaaony caeoieoue nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu ia aieueooth noiio eee ii
niia?aaeaieyi oi?ie?iaaiey aeieain?i/iuo naycae iaaeaeo iinoaaueeii e
iio?aaeoaeai.

2. Ienueiaiiua ia?aaiai?u iaaeaeo iinoaaueeii e iio?aaeoaeai iiaoo
auoue i?aaieciaaiu aeaoiy niiniaaie:

- eieoeeaoeaa anooieaiey a ia?aaiai?u enoiaeeo io iinoaaueea oiaa?a;

- eieoeeaoeaa enoiaeeo io iieoiaoaey.

Iacaaeneii io auae?aaiiai niiniaa ioeaiea i?aaeeiaeaiee, iinooieaoeo e
iioaioeeaeueiiio iio?aaeoaeth, iiaeao aanoenue ?acee/iuie niiniaaie. Yoi
iiaeao auoue no?iai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiue i?ioeann, eae a neo/aa
eiieo?aioiuo oi?aia, eee aieaa naiaiaeiay i?ioeaaeo?a. *aua anaai
iniiaiuie e?eoa?eyie auai?a iinoaaueea yaeythony:

- noieiinoue i?eia?aoaiey oiaa?a eee oneoa;

- ea/anoai ianeoaeeaaiey.

Noieiinoue i?eia?aoaiey aeeth/aao a naay oeaio oiaa?a eee oneoa e ia
eiathuoth oi/iiai e i?yiiai aeaiaaeiiai au?aaeaiey i?i/oth noieiinoue
(eciaiaiea eieaeaea i?aaiecaoeee, nioeeaeueioth cia/eiinoue noa?u
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, ia?niaeoeau ?inoa e ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa
e o. ae.).

Ea/anoai ianeoaeeaaiey aeeth/aao ea/anoai oiaa?a e iaaeaaeiinoue
ianeoaeeaaiey. Iaaeaaeiinoue iiaeii ioeaieoue /a?ac aa?iyoiinoue a
oaeiaeaoai?aiee cayaee iio?aaeoaey.

E?iia iniiaiuo e?eoa?eaa auai?a iinoaaueea nouanoaotho e i?i/ea
e?eoa?ee, eiee/anoai eioi?uo i?aauoaao 60.

- oaeaeaiiinoue iinoaaueea io iio?aaeoaey;

- n?iee auiieiaiey oaeoueo e yeno?aiiuo caeacia;

- nenoaia oi?aaeaiey ea/anoaii i?iaeoeoeee o iinoaaueea;

- ineoieiae/aneee eeeiao a o?oaeiaii eieeaeoeaa iinoaaueea;

- niiniaiinoue iinoaaueea iaania/eoue iinoaaeo caianiuo /anoae a oa/aiee
anaai n?iea neoaeau iinoaaeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey;

- e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue e oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea iinoaaueea e i?.







2. O?AIAIEA NU?Uess E IAOA?EAEIA, IIAeAIOIAEA EO E AeAEAEAIETH





Aeey aania?aaieiie ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoeth iaiaoiaeeiu caianu iniiaiiai
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, aniiiiaaoaeueiiai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea
auno?ieciaoeaaaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo n?aaenoa. Oaeea caianu nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oiai, /oiau:

- iaania/eoue aiciiaeiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa nianoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee aei
n?iea iinooieaiey neaaeothuae ia?oee e i?e yoii,

- iaania/eoue aiciiaeiinoue eciaiaiee iio?aaiinoe nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia
i?e iinoaaea.

Oaeei ia?acii, caianu nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ia i?aaei?eyoee eieaaethony
iaaeaeo eo ieieiaeueiui cia/aieai e iaeaieueoei cia/aieai iaiaoiaeeiuo
caiania.

Ieieiaeueiia eiee/anoai caiania ninoieo ec:

- eaeaiaea?iiai caiana (yoio caian neoaeeo aeey i?aiaeieaiey io?acea
a?aiaie io aeinoaaee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia aei eo neeaaee?iaaiey, o. a.
io?acea a?aiaie, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ?aca?ocee, i?iaa?ee e ?aaeno?aoeee
iinooieaoeo nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia),

- caiana, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey neeaaee?iaaiey (oae iacuaaaiue caian nu?uey
e iaoa?eaeia, eioi?ue o?aaoao auiieiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee o?aiaiey e
oieueei /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiia caaeaiiia a?aiy i?eia?aoaao naith
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth oeaiiinoue, iai?eia?, ecaeaeey ec aea?aaa eee eeouea
ec /oaoia),

- iaoneiaeaiiiai oaoiieiae/aneei i?ioeannii caiana nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia
(caian, eioi?ue i?aaeoniio?ai aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aaeeia
eee ?aai/aai ninoiyiey oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa),

- aaa?eeiiai caiana (caian, eioi?ue aeieaeai anaaaea auoue a iaee/ee
aeey au?aaieaaiey iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo eciaiaiee io iinoaaie nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia aei eo iio?aaeaiey, a oaeaea io iioa?ue nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia).

?acieoea iaaeaeo i?aiaeaaeathuei cia/aieai iainiiaaiiiai ieieiaeueiiai
caiana e i?aiaeaaeathuei cia/aieai yeiiiie/anee e i?aaiecaoeeiiii
iainiiaaiiiai iaeaieueoaai caiana e yaeyaony oaeouei caianii nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia.

A oi a?aiy eae ieieiaeueiue caian nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia yaeyaony
noaaeeueiie aaee/eiie, oaeouee caian iiaeaa?aeai iinoiyiiui eieaaaieyi
io iinoaaee e iinoaaea (ca eioa?aae a?aiaie iaaeaeo aeaoiy iinoaaeaie).

Iauee caian nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ii?aaeaeyaony ?an/aoiui iooai eae noiia
ieieiaeueiiai caiana (Vm ) e n?aaeiaai oaeouaai caiana nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia (Vl e, niioaaonoaaiii, i?e i?eiyoii ?aaiiia?iii iio?aaeaiee
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, Vl/2 ):



e, niioaaonoaaiii,



Ieieiaeueiue caian nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia (Vm) aeieaeai neaaeeoue ca
ioeeiiaieyie io ieaiiia?iuo iinoaaie e io ieaiiia?iiai eniieueciaaiey
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea aeieaeai aa?aioe?iaaoue a ethaia a?aiy
e?eoe/aneia eiee/anoai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey caaeaiiiai ?aaeeia auionea i?aaei?eyoeai nianoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee. Ieieiaeueiue caian nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ?ann/eouaaaony ec
au?aaeaiey:





aaea

Vs - aaa?eeiue caian nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia (ia 1 aeaiue),

Vd - eaeaiaea?iue caian nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,

Vt - oaoie/anee iainiiaaiiue caian nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,

Vp - ia?ae/iue caian nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,

Md - eiyooeoeeaio aaeaaeiaaiiai eniieueciaaiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

Oaeouee caian nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ii?aaeaeyaony eae:



aaea

Lz - oeeeee/iinoue iinoaaie nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,

Lm - eiee/anoai iinoaaie.

Ec niaianoiiai ?aoaiey iaieo auoai?eaaaeaiiuo au?aaeaiee iiaeao auoue
ii?aaeaeaia iniiaiay iaoaiaoe/aneay caaeneiinoue aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
iauaai caiana nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, eioi?ay eiaao aeae:





eee:





Oae eae inouanoaeaiea caiania nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia o?aaotho
aeiiieieoaeueiiai eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey, oi, enoiaey ec yeiiiie/aneie
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, neaaeoao no?aieoueny e oiio, /oiau
auioneaeanue i?iaeoeoeey, ia eiathuay caiania nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, o.
a., niioaaonoaaiii, iaiaoiaeeii no?aieoueny e aania?aaieiie iinoaaea
anaai iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey auionea nianoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, eiee/anoaa
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aai ia?aaioee a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi iieiaeaiea oaea /anoe/ii ?aaeecoaony a auniei?acaeouo
i?iiuoeaiiuo io?aneyo (iai?eia?, a aaoiiiaeeano?iaiee).(9)

Aeey yoiai i?aaei?eyoey - iinoaaueee nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia aeieaeiu auoue
oanii naycaiu a aaeeiii i?iecaiaenoaaiiii ?eoia auionea i?iaeoeoeee.
Anee aea a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?aeoeea i?aaei?eyoey-iinoaaueee nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia a aaeeiii i?iecaiaenoaaiiii ?eoia ia caaeaenoaiaaiu, oi,
oaeei ia?acii, aeieaeai auoue iaania/ai iioeiaeueiue caian nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia oai, aaea aeieaeai auoue i?aaeioa?auai ?ene, aneaaenoaee
naaaeaiiuo e ieieioio oaeoueo iinoaaie nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, iin?aaenoaii
iiauoaiey ieieiaeueiiai caiana nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia. Oaeei ia?acii

ieieioi!

aaea

PV - i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iioa?e aneaaenoaee iaauiieiaiey iinoaaee nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia,

Z - i?ioeaioiua ecaea?aeee aeey oeiaine?iaaiey cao?ao aeey niaea?aeaiey
caiania nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.



Ieaie?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania ia i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeii
iniiauaaoueny ia ?an/aoa iauaeoeaiie iio?aaiinoe a eiie?aoiuo aeaeao
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia n aa?aioe?iaaiiui iaania/aieai i?ioeanna
auiieiaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu e ae?oaeo aeaeia oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ecaea?aeee,
naycaiiua n nicaeaieai e o?aiaieai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania. Iniiaiie
caaea/ae ieaie?iaaiey caiania ia i?aaei?eyoee a nayce n yoei yaeyaony
ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiiai niioiioaiey iaaeaeo aaee/eiie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania e ecaea?aeeaie ia eo nicaeaiea e o?aiaiea.

Ia ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, naycaiiua n i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie caianaie,
ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia oieueei cao?aou ia nicaeaiea e o?aiaiea caiania,
ii e eo ionoonoaea a ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiuo
neooaoeeyo.

?anniio?ei iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua aeaeu ecaea?aeae ia nicaeaiea e
o?aiaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania.

1. Cao?aou ia iiaeaea?aeaiea caiania, oi anoue naycaiiua n aeaaeaieai
caiana:

- eiiia?/aneea cao?aou - i?ioeaiou ca e?aaeeo; no?aoiaaiea; iaeiae ia
eaieoae, aeiaeaiiue a caianu;

- cao?aou ia o?aiaiea - niaea?aeaiea neeaaeia (aii?oecaoeey, ioiieaiea,
inaauaiea, ca?aaioiay ieaoa ia?niiaeo e o. ae.); iia?aoeee ii
ia?aiauaieth caiania;

- cao?aou, naycaiiua n ?eneii iioa?ue aneaaenoaea: onoa?aaaiey, ii?/e,
i?iaeaaee ii nieaeaiiui oeaiai, caiaaeeaiey oaiiia iio?aaeaiey aeaiiuo
aeaeia iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia;

- iioa?e, naycaiiua n oiouaiiie auaiaeie io eniieueciaaiey aeiaeaiiuo a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu n?aaenoa a ae?oaea aeueoa?iaoeaiua iai?aaeaiey:
oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe, nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee; eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey a ae?oaea i?aaei?eyoey.

2. Cao?aou ia oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie caianaie:

- ia iao/aiea oi?aaeai/aneiai e oaoie/aneiai ia?niiaea;

- ia niaea?aeaiea oi?aaeai/aneiai e oaoi-eiai ia?niiaea.

3. Ia iaiaa ?aciiia?aciu aeaeu cao?ao, naycaiiuo n aeaoeoeeoii caiania,
oi anoue aicieeathuea ia i?aaei?eyoee i?e ionoonoaee iaiaoiaeeiuo
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia:

- cao?aou ia onei?aiea aeinoaaee iaiaoiaeeiuo iaoa?eaeia: ?anoiaeu ia
naycue e ?acuacaeu; i?aiee ca auno?oth aeinoaaeo iaoa?eaeia;
oaei?iaeaiea ca n/ao iinoaaee iaeuo ia?oee iaoa?eaeia;

- cao?aou, naycaiiua n ei??aeoe?iaeie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu,
onei?aiey ioa?ocee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, ecaioiaeaiiie n ia?ooaieai
a?aoeea;

- eiiia?/aneea oauoee e ?anoiaeu; iioa?e i?eaueae e ?ino aeiee
iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n nie?auaieai iauaia i?iaeaae ec-ca
ionoonoaey a caianao iaiaoiaeeiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia;

Iiaeii iaiauaiii ioiaoeoue iiceoeaiua e iaaaoeaiua aniaeou iaee/ey
cia/eoaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania.

Iiceoeaiue aniaeo caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iaania/eaathony aunieee
o?iaaiue ianeoaeeaaiey iio?aaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee e aa?aioe?iaaiiue ?eoi
?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey.

Iaaaoeaiua aniaeou iaee/ey aieueoiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai caiana
i?iyaeythony a oii, /oi iie a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo i?eaiaeyo e
nieaeaieth ea/anoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, ia anaaaea iiaoo auoue
iieiinoueth aino?aaiaaiu, oaaee/eaatho cao?aou ia naia niaea?aeaiea e
nieaeatho nei?inoue ia?auaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.









3. YEIIIIE*ANEIA ENIIEUeCIAAIEA ?ANO?NIA



Iniaaiiinoueth ?anniao?eaaaiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuie
?ano?naie yaeyaony ionoonoaea a iae ea?a?oee oi?aaeaiey, eai aeaeaeaiea
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia inouanoaeyaony ia aee?aeoeaie, a n iiiiuueth
?aaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo n?aaenoa. A oaeie nenoaia ana aa iieueciaaoaee
aoaeoo iaoiaeeoueny a ?aaiii?aaiii iieiaeaiee, a anee e aoaeoo
i?eaeeaaee, oi oieueei o oi?ioi ?aaioathueo i?aaei?eyoee.

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee aeaaiaea?y eiieo?aioeee iaaeaeo
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyie onoaiaaeeaaaony iaeioi?ue iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiue o?iaaiue cao?ao iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, eioi?ue e
yaeyaony iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiui. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie
yoio o?iaaiue noaaeeai, n oaiaeaioeeae e nieaeaieth.

Anyeia i?aauoaiea iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiiai o?iaiy cao?ao aeey aeaiiiai
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey aea/ao iaaaoeaiua yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey -
aieioue aei aaie?ionoaa. Iiyoiio eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea auioaeaeaii
?aaioaoue oae, /oiau aai cao?aou ia i?aauoaee onoaiiaeaoeeny iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue. A yoii caeeth/aaony yeiiiie/aneay iniiaa
iaoaiecia ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, o. a.
?ano?ninaa?aaeaiey.



Aaee/eia cao?ao iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
ii?aaeaeyaony oa?aeoa?ii i?ioeanna iaoa?eaeiiio?aaeaiey. Ia i?ioeann
iaoa?eaeiiio?aaeaiey ieacuaatho aeeyiea neaaeothuea oaeoi?u:

1. Oei i?iecaiaenoaa, a eiaiii: ianniaia, e?oiiina?eeiia,
n?aaeiana?eeiia, iaeeina?eeiia e aaeeie/iia.

2. Iauai i?iecaiaenoaa.

3. Noaiaiue ?aaeaiaioaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, i?aaeaea anaai
a /anoe o?aaiaaiee e i?aaeiaoai o?oaea - io aai enoiaeiiai ninoiyiey e
aei aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

4. Aeeeoaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea, /oi ii?aaeaeyao aaee/eio
iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

5. Iiiaieeaoo?a (anni?oeiaio) auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee eee auiieiyaiuo
?aaio, o.a. noaiaiue iiiaiiiiaieeaoo?iinoe i?ia?aiiu.

6. Aeaeinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, o. a. niiniaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e auno?ie
ia?aiaeaaeea aeey auionea iiauo aeaeia ecaeaeee.

7. Aeae ecaeaeee eee ?aaio n oi/ee c?aiey eo neiaeiinoe, yia?aiaieinoe,
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe e iaoeiaieinoe.

8. O?iaaiue caeii/aiiinoe ecaioiaeyaiuo ecaeaeee.

9. O?iaaiue iaaeaaeiinoe ecaioiaeyaiuo ecaeaeee, /oi ii?aaeaeyao
iaoa?eaeicao?aou a i?ioeanna eo yenieoaoaoeee.

10. Oa?aeoa?enoeea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia n oi/ee c?aiey eo
i?ia?anneaiinoe, yeieiae/aneie /enoiou, aaciooiaeiinoe.

Ia?a/eneaiiua oaeoi?u i?aaeii?aaeaeytho i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie. Oae, iai?eia?, a ianniaii eee e?oiiina?eeiii
i?iecaiaenoaa iio?aaeyaony aanueia cia/eoaeueiue iauai iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia, ii ia?aie/aiiie iiiaieeaoo?u, a a aaeeie/iii eee iaeeina?eeiii
i?iecaiaenoaa iauai iio?aaeaiey iaaaeee, ii aeinoaoi/ii iaoe?ai ii
iiiaieeaoo?a.

Aieaa oiai, oeacaiiua oaeoi?u a iniiaiii oi?ie?otho io?aneaaua
iniaaiiinoe iaoa?eaeiiio?aaeaiey, eioi?ua a iaeaieueoae noaiaie
i?iyaeythony a no?ieoaeuenoaa, aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena, ia
o?ainii?oa, a noa?a ianeoaeeaaiey.(8)

Ana iiiaiia?acea i?ioeannia iaoa?eaeiiio?aaeaiey iiaeii naanoe e
neaaeothuei ia?iui oa?aeoa?enoeeai, o. a. iaoa?eaeiiio?aaeaiea iiaeao
auoue:

- noaaeeueiia e ianoaaeeueiia;

- aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiia e noioanoe/aneia;

- ?aaiiia?iia e ia?aaiiia?iia;

- ?eoie/iia e ia?eoie/iia.

Iaeioi?ua eo i?aaenoaaeaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaoo ia?anaeaoueny,
iaeioi?ua oa?aeoa?enoeee ianiaianoeiu, aiciiaeiu i?iiaaeooi/iua
cia/aiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?ioeann iaoa?eaeiiio?aaeaiey aeeth/aao a naay
eniieueciaaiea i?aaeaea anaai oaeeo aeaeia iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, eae
nu?uea, iniiaiua iaoa?eaeu, aniiiiaaoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, iieooaa?eeaou,
eiiieaeoothuea ecaeaeey, oiieeai, i?e/ai iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?e oi?ie?iaaiee caiania.



?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia oioy e yaeyaony, a
i?eioeeia, i?iecaiaenoaaiiie caaea/ae, iaeiaei i?aaeeueiay
i?iecaiaenoaaiiay nenoaia iaoa?eaeueii - oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey
i?aaeiieaaaao yooaeoeaiua ii?iu ?anoiaea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e ieacuaaao
ia iaai nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea. I?e onoaiiaeaiee yooaeoeaiuo ii?i ?anoiaea
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia neaaeoao enoiaeeoue ec eo iioeiaeueiuo aaee/ei,
eioi?ua yaeythony aeinoeaeeiuie i?e aeaiiuo eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna auionea i?iaeoeoeee.

?anoiae iniiaiiai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo ii?aaeaeyaony,
i?e oaoieei- oaoiieiae/aneii iainiiaaiee, ec au?aaeaiey:





aaea: Mk - ?anoiae nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo, ioiinyuaiony
e auioneo i?iaeoeoeee;

q - iauai- i?iecaiaenoaa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee;

Mr1..Mr - ii?ie?iaaiiue ?anoiae nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia eaaeaeiai aeaea,
iaiaoiaeeiue aeey ecaioiaeaiey aaeeieoeu auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee io 1
aei n.

Auoai?eaaaeaiiia au?aaeaiea yaeyaony naiie iaaeaaeiie iniiaie aeey
inouanoaeaiey ieaie?iaaiey ?anoiaeia iniiaiiai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.
Aiciiaeiui yaeyaony oaeaea iiuoii-noaoenoe/aneia iainiiaaiea ?anoiaea
iniiaiiai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia eee aea ioeaiea yoiai ?anoiaea ii
n?aaieoaeueiui niiinoaaeiui ia?aiao?ai.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiia yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo e
yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia o?aaoao i?aaiecaoeee yeiiiiee nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia
e yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia, eioi?ua aeieaeiu ioaaoeoue ana noa?u
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Iniiaie aeey i?aaiecaoeee yoie yeiiiiee
yaeyaony i?eaioe?iaaiiia ia iaa oaoiieiae/aneia ?acaeoea i?aaei?eyoey,
eioi?ia ioaaouaaao /aou?a eiiieaeniua caaea/e:



1. Yeiiiiey nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia e yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia, caeiaeaiiay a
i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee ecaeaeee

* Yeiiiiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia i?e auionea oaea ?ac?aaioaiiuo ecaeaeee
i?e eiino?oe?iaaiee iiauo ecaeaeee e i?e aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ecaeaeee ii
anni?oeiaioo.

* Yeiiiiey nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia e yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia a ?acoeueoaoa
iioeiecaoeee oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna i?e i?iecaiaenoaa ecaeaeee.

* Ia?ai?eaioaoeey ?aiaa ioi?ieaiiuo ecaeaeee ia yeiiiie/anee aieaa
auaiaeiua nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, oceu e aeaoaee, a oaeaea yia?aaoe/anee
aieaa yeiiiiiua oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu i?iecaiaenoaa aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee.

* Ioiineoaeueiia oiaiueoaiea i?aoaicee o eeeaioia a ?acoeueoaoa
iiauoaiey ea/anoaa ecaeaeee, nicaeaiey iiauo iio?aaeoaeueneeo ecaeaeee e
oeo/oaiea aiaoiaai ioi?ieaiey nenoai ecaeaeee (n oi/ee c?aiey
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ecaeaeee).

* Yeiiiiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia e oaoie/aneeo
n?aaenoa a i?ioeanna inouanoaeaiey oiaeiaee, o?ainii?oe?iaee,
iia?ocee-?aca?ocee e neeaaee?iaaiey aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.



2. Yeiiiiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia iin?aaenoaii oeo/oaiey aiieeeaoeee
ecaeaeey

* Yeiiiiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia iin?aaenoaii eniieueciaaiey iauai?eiyouo
eee niaoeeoe/aneeo ( niaoeeaeueii i?eniiniaeaiiuo aeey eeeaioa )
?aoeaioo?, i?aaeienaiee ii ia?aaioea e oaoieea i?eiaiaiey ecaeaeee.

* Iioeiecaoeey anni?oeiaioa ecaeaeee n inouanoaeaieai yeiiiiee nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia e yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia iin?aaenoaii eciaiaiey ( ?anoe?aiey
eee noaeaiey ) iaeanoae i?eiaiaiey auioneaaiuo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
ecaeaeee.

* I?iaaaeaiea eiinoeueoaoeee n caeac/eeaie ecaeaeee ii aeaeueiaeoae
ia?aaioea e, niioaaonoaaiii, ii i?eiaiaieth iinoaaeyaiuo ecaeaeee, a
oaeaea ii ?aoaieth i?iaeai, eioi?ua aicieeatho a i?ioeanna ia?aaioee e
i?eiaiaiey ecaeaeee.

* Enneaaeiaaiea ioeacia ?aaiou ecaeaeee o caeac/eeia, iaoneiaeaiiuo
i?eiaiaieai oiai eee eiiai nu?uey ( eee iaoa?eaeia ), e ono?aiaiea
i?e/ei, aucuaathueo ioeacu a ?aaioa ecaeaeee.



3. Yeiiiiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia iin?aaenoaii oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna

* ?ac?aaioea e eniieueciaaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, eioi?ua
aa?aioe?otho aunieia e noaaeeueiia ea/anoai ecaeaeee.

* Nie?auaiea, iaoneiaeaiiia eniieueciaaieai oiai eee eiiai
oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, ?anoiaeia nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,
yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia ia aaeeieoeo auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea
iioa?ue nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia.

* Iiauoaiea niiniaiinoe i?eniinaaeeaaaiinoe ?ac?aaioaiiuo
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e eciaiaiiui aeaeai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e
iaoa?eaeueii - nouanoaaiiui niaoeeoe/aneei o?aaiaaieyi iio?aaeoaeae
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

* ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiae/aneeo ?aoaiee aeey i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai eee
iia?aoeaiiai caiauaiey ( acaeiicaiaiyaiinoe ) nu?ueaauo e
aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia.

* Nie?auaiea iio?aaiinoe a nu?uea e iaoa?eaeao aeey iano?ieee e
aiaae?aiey oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia.



4. Yeiiiiey nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia iin?aaenoaii
inouanoaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie a iaeanoyo eniieueciaaiey
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia

* Enneaaeiaaiea e eniieueciaaiea eiino?oeoeaiuo e oaoiieiae/aneeo
naienoa nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

* Iiene iiauo e ?anoe?aiea iaeanoe eniieueciaaiey ecaanoiuo
eiino?oeoeaiuo e oaoiieiae/aneeo ?aoaiee, i?eaiaeiuo aeey eniieueciaaiey
ia?ae/iiai e aoi?e/iiai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia.

* eiino?oeoeaiuo e oaoiieiae/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae acaeiicaiaiyaiinoe
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia.

* Enneaaeiaaiea e ?ac?aaioea eiino?oeoeaiuo e oaoiieiae/aneeo
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoaiee, a oaeaea ?aoaiee, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu aeey acaeiicaiaiyaiinoe yia?aiiineoaeae e i?eiaiyaiuo
enoi/ieeia yia?aee, n?aaee eioi?uo iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea caieiatho
enoi/ieee yia?aee, inouanoaeyaiua iin?aaenoaii ioaiaea oaiea.

- o/ao anao iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa;

- iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aaioeo iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa ( ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui auioneii aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee );

- neeaaee?iaaiea iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa;

- eniieueciaaiea iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa a ea/anoaa aoi?e/iiai nu?uey.

Iineieueeo aoi?e/iia eniieueciaaiea iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeienaii
caeiiii, oi cao?aou, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey inouanoaeaiey yoiai ia?ii?eyoey,
oiaea neaaeoao oiaiueoaoue. Oi aea naiia neaaeoao aeaeaoue e n oi/ee
c?aiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie yoeee.

N /enoi yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey ioaeii, /oiau cao?aou ia o/ao e
ia?aienue iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa, ia eo iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aaioeo, ia
neeaaee?iaaiea, o?aiaiea e aica?auaiea iooiaeia a ea/anoaa aoi?e/iiai
nu?uey, aeeth/ay nthaea e cao?aou ia aiciiaeiua oaoiieiae/aneea
i?ioeannu ii ia?aaioea iooiaeia, aeieaeiu auoue iaeeiaeiaie aaee/eiu eee
ieaea, /ai cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea e ia?aaioeo ia?ae/iiai nu?uey e
iaoa?eaeia.

Yeiiiie/aneia eniieueciaaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ieacuaaao ?aoathuaa
aeeyiea ia nieaeaiea ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa, naaanoieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii iiauoaiea i?eaueueiinoe e ?aioaaaeueiinoe
?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey. Aeiaaaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania aei ?aaeueii
iaiaoiaeeiiai e aeinoaoi/iiai o?iaiy niinianoaoao aunaiaiaeaeaieth
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, aiaea/aieth aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia
a i?iecaiaenoai, a oai naiui e nicaeaao oneiaey aeey auionea
aeiiieieoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.



















4. OI?AAEAIEA IAOA?EAEUeIUIE ?ANO?NAIE IA I?EIA?A EIIE?AOIIAI
I?AAeI?EssOEss



Oeaeue aeaiiie ?aaiou ia aoaeao aeinoeaiooa, anee ia iieacaoue ?aaioo
anaai i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie ia eiie?aoiii
i?eia?a. Aeey yoiai, y oioaea au i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ?aaioo ianeieueeeo
ioa/anoaaiiuo iaaaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee:

- oi?aiaue aeii ??iaea?(nia/aea caieiaeny ?aaeecaoeeae iaaaee, ii
iinoaiaiii ia?aoae e aa i?iecaiaenoao),

- eiioea?i?Ia?en?( caieiaeny i?iaeaaeae ioeniie iaaaee ec Eoaeee e
Iieueoe, iicaea i?eiyoi ?aoaiea ia iniiaaiee i?iecaiaenoaa,

- IAI ?Iioiaeeianeee AeIE?,

- AI ?Eaaiaea?,

- NI?Iino?(niaoeeaeece?oaony ia i?iecaiaenoaa e?iaaoae),

- oe?ia ?Aa?eai? (auioneaao ioenioth iaaaeue),

- CAI ?Oaenii?(auioneaao iyaeoth iaaaeue?,

- eiiia?aoea ?Oaney?u?(ecaioaaeeaaao ia caeac iaaaeue ec iaoo?aeueiiai
aeoaa).



Iaoa?eaeu e iinoaaueee



I?iecaiaeyuea iaaaeue eiiiaiee a 90 neo/ayo ec 100 eniieuecotho
eiino?aiiia nu?uea, iinoaaeaie eioi?iai caieiaaony aieueoia eiee/anoai
eiii?oa?ia. I?iua anaai NI ?Iino?- i?aaei?eyoea naii eiii?oe?oao ioaeiia
aeey i?iecaiaenoaa, o.a. nu?uea i?eia?aoaaony aac oi?aiaie iaoeaiee.
??iaea? iieo/aao ana iaoa?eaeu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ec-ca ?oaaaea.
?Oaney?u? eniieuecotho iaiaoeeea e eoaeueyineea eiiieaeoothuea, ii aeoa
o ieo ioa/anoaaiiue. Iie iieaaathony ia naieo iinoiyiiuo iinoaaueeia.
Iaeoe eo auei iao?oaeii, iineieueeo i?aaeeiaeaiee, aeeth/athueo iinoaaeo
a?aaai i?yii ia i?aaei?eyoea caeac/eea, a ecauoea. Eoaiiao? e?oaeiai
aeoaa noieo io $100 aei $130. Auai? iinoaaueea aeaeaaony enoiaey ec
ea/anoaa i?aaeeaaaaiiai ei iaoa?eaea, o.e. ?acieoea oeai o iinoaaueeia
iaaaeeea. Ia aeeyao ia ?acia? ecaea?aeae aeey caeac/eea e ianoi, ioeoaea
iinoaaeyaony ean. I?aaenaaeaoaeue eiiia?aoeaa ?Oaney?u? aeaoiy
i?aaeeaie, eioi?ui ioaeii neaaeiaaoue, /oiau ia ?i?ieieioueny? n
iinoaaueeaie eana. Ia?aia - ca?aiaa iaaiaa?eaaoue ana ia?aiao?u. Aoi?ia
- iieaoo i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei iinea iieo/aiey iaoa?eaea.

?oeiaiaenoai CAI ?Oaenii? n/eoaao, /oi aeey iieneia iinoaaueeia aiieia
aeinoaoi/ii i?aen-eenoia. Eae i?aaeei, noieo aaea-oi iiyaeoueny
eioi?iaoeee i oaiae oe?ia, iie ia?aua oaay iaeaeoo. Aeaaiia i?aaeei ai
acaeiiioiioaieyo n iaciaeiiuie ia?oia?aie - iieaoa ii oaeoo iinoaaee.

Eioa?anii, /oi o?aaeeoeeiiiay aeey iaoae no?aiu i?iaeaia iienea
iaaeaaeiuo ia?oia?ia ieacuaaaony oa?aeoa?ia e aeey o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiiai
?uiea. O oi?aiaiai aeiia ??iaea? 90% iinoaaueeia - iinoiyiiua ia?oia?u.
A i?ioeanna ?aaiou i?ienoiaeeo ionaa. E i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi ia
Caiaaea i?iecaiaenoai ?aaioaao eaeaaeueii, aeaeaei ia anaaaea aa?ii. A
Eoaeee iiaeii ano?aoeoue iaiaaeaaeiuo ia?oia?ia, eioi?ua ianyoeaie ia
auiieiytho iinoaaee. ?acieoea iaaeaeo iinoaaueeaie a oii, /oi o eo/oeo
anaaaea anoue aeueoa?iaoeaa.

A oe?ia ?Aa?eai? eiiieaeoothuea iieo/aee iaiin?aaenoaaiii io
i?iecaiaeeoaey ec *aoee, ii iioii iiiyee, /oi yoi iiaeii i?iecaiaeeoue e
a Oe?aeia. *aoneea ia?oia?u ioeacaeenue a ioaao ia oeueoeiaooi ia
ioaea/a ia eiineaiaoeeth ia iaiaa o?ao iaoei eiiieaeoothueo e
i?aaei?eyoea ia?aoei ia oe?aeineeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

AI ?Eaaiaea? i?iecaiaeee caeoieo enoiaeiuo iaoa?eaeia a Oe?aeia, ii,
eniuoaa iaiaoeeoth, iieueneoth, aaei?onneoth e i?eaaeoeeneoth ieeou,
?oeiaiaenoai ?Eaaiaeu? iiaeienaei eiio?aeo ia iinoaaeo oaeiai iaoa?eaea
ec Eaoaee. Oeaie iieoiathony a Eeoaa, Iaeaaeiiee e ae?oaeo no?aiao
Aa?iiu. Ec Aa?iaiee iinoaaeythony eaee. Iiae iaai
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneee ioaeae aeaao ioaeaeueiua
cayaee-niaoeeoeeaoeee. Ana ioa/anoaaiiua oiaa?u aeinoaaeythony
nianoaaiiui aaoio?ainii?oii.

Ia IAI ?Iioiaeeianeee AeIE? iniiaiay ianna nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia caaiceony
ec-ca ?oaaaea. I?aaei?eyoea iiaeaea?aeeaaao eiioaeou n ?yaeii
oe?i-i?iecaiaeeoaeae ec Eoaeee, Aa?iaiee, Eniaiee. Auae?atho oiai, eoi
i?aaeeiaeeo aieaa aunieia ea/anoai e naioth ieceoth oeaio.





Neeaaeneea iiiauaiey



A AI ?Eaaiaea? neeaaeu ?ann/eoaiu ia o?aiaiea o?aoaeiaaiiai iauaia
auiouaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Nu?ueaaie neeaae ?aniieaaaao aieueoie
iiiaieeaoo?ie ii i?eiaiyaiui iaoa?eaeai. Ii iaeiie iiceoeee eiathony
caianu ia 2-3 aeiy, ii ae?oaie - ia iaaeaeth, ii o?aoueae - ia ianyoe, a
ii iaeioi?ui caaioiaeai - ia ianeieueei ianyoeaa, iineieueeo iie
o?aaotho nooee.

Eiioea?i ?Ia?en? eniieuecoao aeey o?aiaiey iaaaeueiuo iieooaa?eeaoia,
aeinoaaeyaiuo n Iioiaeineiai AeIEa, neeaaeneea iiiauaiey, ieiuaaeueth
60000 ea. i. A aeey i?iaeoeoeee, ecaioiaeaiiie iiae caeac ia ioa?oceo,
iai?oaeiaai ioaeaeueiue neeaae.

Eae i?aaeei, iaaaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey iaoiaeyony ieieioiii neeaaeneeo
iiiauaiee, /oiau ecaaaeaoue aieueoeo iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia.(11)

A eiioea ioaeii aeiaaaeoue, /oi ieeoi ec auoai?eaaaeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
ia neeaae ia ?aaioaao, o.a. aeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey aiieia
eiieo?aioiniiniaiu.



?anniao?eaaaiua i?aaei?eyoey ii i?iecaiaenoao iaaaee eiaee ?aciue
iiaeoiae e iinoaaeaiiie ei caaea/a oi?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie
naiaai i?aaei?eyoey. Ii a eaaeaeii neo/aa ?acoeueoao aue
iieiaeeoaeueiui, oioy e n ia?aiaiiui oniaoii. Iooai eni?aaeaiey ioeaie,
iie o/aony oi?aaeyoue naiei i?iecaiaenoaii e iieo/aoue aeinoaoi/ioth
i?eaueue.

A ?acoeueoaoa iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi nouanoaotho ?aciua acaeyaeu
ia iaeio i?iaeaio e ?aciua iooe aa ?aoaiey. Eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea
?oeiaiaenoaoaony nianoaaiiuie niia?aaeaieyie e iiuoii a oi?aaeaiee
naieie iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie.















Auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey



Iinoaaeaiiay oeaeue auea aeinoeaiooa iooai eiiieaeniiai aiaeeca
nouanoaothueo iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie i?aaei?eyoey,
aiaeeca ia?eiaee/aneiai iaoa?eaea, noaoae e aiaeeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea ia
aeaiioth oaio. Iiith auea i?iaiaeece?iaaia no?oeoo?a nia?aiaiiuo
iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie i?aaei?eyoey, nenoaia e
aeaeaeaiea nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia io iiiaioa ii?aaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iaania/aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie aei
auoiaea eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa.

I?e i?aaeeueiii e eiae/aneii iiaeoiaea e nouanoaothuei iaoiaeai iiaeii
i?aaeeueii oi?aaeyoue iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie i?aaei?eyoey, ecaaaay
eceeoieo ecaea?aeae.

O/eouaay aaaeiinoue i?aaeeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey e yooaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iinoiyiiiai o/aoa e eiio?iey eo ?ani?aaeaeaiey, oeaeaniia?acii
?aeiiaiaeiaaoue iaeaaeeoue ia i?aaei?eyoeyo yooaeoeaioth nenoaio
eaaeaeiaeiaaiiai o/aoa oiaa?iuo caiania e aeaeaeaiey ?ano?nia, caiyouo a
i?iecaiaenoaa n eniieueciaaieai nia?aiaiiuo n?aaenoa aaoiiaoecaoeee.

Neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi iaee/ea ia i?aaei?eyoeyo eiiiuethoa?iie nenoaiu
o/aoa iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia iicaieeo iaiaaeaea?ai iieo/aoue iieioth
ea?oeio iaee/ey, eniieueciaaiey e aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna, /oi aeieaeii i?eaanoe e ieieiecaoeee
ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e iioeiecaoeee eniieueciaaiey e oi?aaeaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?naie i?aaei?eyoey.





















Nienie eeoa?aoo?u



1. Aouethaeaea O. Naoaaua iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey a i?iaeoe?iaaiee e
i?iecaiaenoaa. - I.: Ie?, 1979.

2. Ai?iaii Ae., Ai?ioeia E.E., Oaaea?iaii ?. Iaiaaeaeiaio.
I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea: Ia?. n iai.
- Aaiao?a: 1992.

3. Aoooaa A.A., Iiainaeia A.O., Iaiia N.A. Iniiau i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.
Iiae ?aae. ?iaa/a A.E. - Eeaa: BHV, 1992.

4. A?aenii Aeae.E., IAeaee E. Aia?eeaineee iaiaaeaeiaio ia ii?iaa XXI
aaea: Ia?. n aiae. - I.: 1991.

5. AEaeaiiaa E.A. I?aaiecaoeey e oi?aaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiie oe?iie. - I.:
Ecae. Oi-oa Ae?oaeau ia?iaeia, 1987.

6. Eioea? O. Iniiau ia?eaoeiaa: Ia?. n aiae. - I.: I?ia?ann, 1992.

7. Eyiiaaee ?. Iaeeiiiaee, Noyiee E. A?th. Yeiiiieen: I?eioeeiu,
i?iaeaiu e iieeoeea. - I.: ?anioaeeea, 1992.

8. Iaea?aiei I.A., Iaoaeeia I.I. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue iaiaaeaeiaio. O/aaiia
iiniaea aeey AOCia. - I.: 1998.

9. Iyneii I.O., Aeueaa?o I., Oaaeio?e O. Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa: Ia?. n
aiae. - I.: Aeaei, 1992.

10. Naithyeuenii Iie A., Ii?aeaaoc A. Iae?iyeiiiieea: Ia?. n aiae. -
Eeaa: Iniiau, 1995.

11. Cae?aaneee A., Naiaiia N., Oaaei?ia A. Iaaaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey:
acaeyae ia iuiaoithth neooaoeeth e ia?niaeoeao.

// Eaieoae, ?2 1998.






© 2010.