Finland- EU- Russia security
Finland- EU- Russia security
The Security Policy
Significance of EU Membership for Finland
I. The European Union and
membership in the European Union is a pragmatic line of action in security
policy. EU membership gives Finland new opportunities for influencing change
and stability in its security environment. The importance of membership for
Finnish security depends on Finland's own contribution. Finland's military
security remains its own responsibility.
a member of the EU, Finland has full powers and opportunities for influencing
the decisions taken in a community of democratic states aiming to build lasting
the end of the East West division, the policy of neutrality that Finland
followed in the Cold War is no longer a viable line of action. During the Cold
War, Finland tried to avoid making political, and especially military,
commitments that might have drawn it into conflicts between the great powers.
In the new situation, Finland's strategy is an active participation in
international political and security cooperation for prevention and resolution
of security problems.
has not made any security policy reservations concerning its obligations under
its founding treaties or the Maastricht Treaty. Finland has joined the Union as
a militarily nonaligned country which wishes to play an active and constructive
role in creating and implementing a common foreign and security policy.
EU is not a military alliance, nor is it an independent actor in the field of
defence. Those EU Member States that also belong to NATO manage their defence
through the collective defence offered by NATO, while the militarily nonaligned
member states rely on an independent defence. Despite the provisions of its
founding charter, the WEU is not a fullscale military alliance; the common
defence of its members is managed in coordination with NATO and in practice
relies on NATO's military structures and resources.
nonalignment is no obstacle to Finland's pursuit of its membership objectives,
or to the fulfilment of its undertakings. No such conflict can be found either
in the clauses of the Maastricht Treaty or in Finland's experiences or
prospects as a member.
contribution to conflict prevention and crisis management strengthens the
Union's capacity to promote cooperative security in Europe. Finland's credible
independent defence capability is an important contribution to the Union's
common security. Finland will play a constructive role in consideration of the defence
issue within the Union, decisions concerning which will be made unanimously
among the member states. Finland is convinced that its own interests and those
of the other member states can be reconciled on this issue.
is by remaining outside military alliances that Finland under the present
circumstances can best support stability in northern Europe and thus more
widely on the continent as a whole. Considering the special historical
relationship between Sweden and Finland and the similar interests in their
vicinity, Sweden's security policy has always been an extremely important
factor in Finnish security.
European Union's goal is to safeguard the common values and interests and
independence of the Union, and to strengthen the security of the Union and all
its member states in all ways. A capable and unified European Union in which
the interests of all member states are taken equally into account will
strengthen Finnish security. Union membership will help Finland repel any
military threats and prevent attempts to exert political pressure.
an independent state, Finland will defend its political sovereignty and
territorial integrity. Under the UN Charter, Finland can request the assistance
and support of other countries if it becomes the object of aggression.
II. The Security Policy
Significance of EU Membership for Finland
1. Finland and the
Development of a Common Foreign and Security Policy
European Union pursues a common foreign and security policy in order to attain
the common objectives of its members. Under the Maastricht Treaty, the common
foreign and security policy shall include all questions related to the security
of the European Union. Within the Union's second intergovernmental pillar, the
member states have enhanced and expanded the foreign policy cooperation begun
during the Community era. In the longer term, the Treaty allows the EU a common
defence policy and a common defence.
common defence adopted as the Union's longterm goal in the Maastricht Treaty
continues to generate public debate, but there are as yet in sight no prospects
of it coming about. The primary task of the Union's defence dimension in the
short term is to develop a capability for crisis management. The means to this
are the strengthening of the WEU's operational and structural capabilities.
2. Finland's Experiences
security policy solutions made by Finland provide an adequate foundation for
involvement in international cooperation for crisis management. The framework
for Finnish action comprises its EU membership, its observer status in the WEU
its Partnership for Peace with NATO, and its OSCE and UN membership. Finland's
actual contribution in practice will depend on its own decisions and the
country's determination and capacity.
security policy derives from a national security assessment and national
decisionmaking. The national policies extend to all issues of foreign
the Union, the member states pursue a systematic policy of taking stands on
international disputes and conflicts, and of coordination and collaboration in
international organizations. The objects of a joint Union action include the
Pact on Stability in Europe and election monitoring, in arms control the
extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and OSCE projects such as
strengthening cooperation between the OSCE and the UN.
and security policy cooperation within the Union is an intergovernmental matter
which is normally implemented by unanimous decisions and solutions of the
member states. Their common values and similar goals and interests in building
up a European security order are the basis for unity and mutual solidarity between
the member states. By sharing in these collective efforts, Finland can expect
support from other members for its own aspirations and for its position.
experiences as a member of the Union show that Finnish security interests can
be reconciled with the Union's common interests.
has had no difficulty in concurring with the common stands and joint measures
on which the members of the Union have attained unanimity. Finland has made an
active contribution to the Union's joint strategy on Russia, which aims at
building a lasting partnership between the EU and a democratic Russia. Finland
has been able to participate in and concur with the Union's action in the
Chechen crisis, where the Union has called upon Russia to observe the norms and
obligations it has endorsed, as a condition for putting into force the
partnership and cooperation agreement with the Union. Finland has won support
from the Union for its own, and the Nordic, line of action in consolidating the
independence of the Baltic states, in supporting their political and economic
reforms and in opening for them the perspective of Union membership.
security policy significance of EU membership for Finland depends not only on
the Union's capability but also, and crucially, on Finland's own capability and
activeness as a Union member. In terms of Finnish security, strategically
important objects for cooperation in the future will be to enhance the
capabilities of the OSCE and to build a cooperative security order in Europe,
to create an EU strategy on Russia, and to expand the Union into Central Europe
and the Baltics.
supports consolidation of the EU's crisis management capacity. Finland is
preparing to contribute constructively to debate on the future of the Union's
and WEU's institutional relations.
3. Defence Planning,
Doctrine and Personnel Policy
goal of Finland's defence is to guarantee the country's independence, secure
the livelihood of its citizens, prevent Finnish territory from being seized and
secure the functioning of the state leadership. Finland's defence solution is
based on territorial defence and a large reserve army founded on general
national defence is the best way to guarantee that Finnish territory will not
become the object of military speculation, or that a war will not result from
the threat of military force in even minor crises. The entire territory of the
country will be defended. The creation of capabilities for receiving assistance
in a crisis situation is taken into consideration in developing Finland's
President of the Republic is the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces. The
Government Committee on Foreign and Security Policy is the highest consultative
and planning body on defence matters. Its members are the ministers responsible
for national security, the Prime Minister acting as its chairman. The President
may attend the meetings. As a part of the Council of State, the Ministry of
Defence is responsible for national defence policy, as well as international
Chief of Defence leads the Defence Forces, which are responsible for securing
the territorial integrity of the country, and the defence of the nation and its
military preparedness in general. Administratively, the Defence Forces are
under the Ministry of Defence. In respect to operational orders, the Chief of
Defence is directly responsible to the President.
addition to military defence, the concept of total defence includes measures
concerning national economy, civil defence, the media, social welfare,
communications and civil order. In accordance with the 1991 State of Readiness
Act, the defence of the nation is shared among several different administrative
country is divided into three commands and 12 military provinces, a structure
that ensures the whole territory is defended. The most important tasks of the
Defence Forces are surveillance of the nation's land, sea and air spaces,
securing territorial integrity and, if necessary, the defence of the country.
to Finnish law, all male citizens between the ages of 18 and 60 are under
obligation to carry out military service. The conscripts serve either a period
of twelve (12), nine (9) or six (6) months. Each year more than 80% of those
called up complete their national service. An essential part of national
service is military training of reservists. In accordance with a law passed in
1995, it is possible for women to volunteer for military service, and 400-500
women do so annually.
wartime defence is based on mobilised forces. The general development in Europe,
including the environs of Finland, has made a reduction in the strength of
Defence Forces possible, provided the technical level of the remaining forces
is raised. The reductions in the Defence Forces wartime strength will be
continued, bringing the maximum strength down to 350,000 men by the end of
developing Finland's defence system, priority will be given to the command and
control system, the Army's readiness formations, military crisis management
capacity and the wartime economy arrangements in the information society.
4. The Finnish Defence
spends about 1.4 % of its GDP on military defence. An essential part of the
Defence Forces' capability is its materiel preparedness, and about one third of
defence expenditure is spent on procurement.
military crisis management capacity is developed to meet the crisis management
objectives of the European Union and the UN, the primary tool being the NATO
Planning and Review Process (PARP). Development of the troops and systems of
the Finnish Defence Forces for crisis management purposes will be of benefit to
national defence. Finland can participate in military crisis management
operations implemented by the UN, the OSCE, the EU or NATO, provided these
operations are under a UN or OSCE mandate consistent with the provisions of the
Finnish Act on Peace Support Operations. Finland may have up to 2,000
peacekeepers in operations at any one time.
Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defence are responsible for
military crisis management preparations, guidance and supervision. The Defence
Forces are responsible for practical implementation.
first priority is to take part in EU-led Peace Support Operations in the Nordic
framework. The Nordic Countries have developed the concept of a common pool of
forces for military crisis management within the framework of the Nordic
Coordinated Arrangement for Military Peace Support (NORDCAPS). ´Our
common Nordic aim is to create, by the year 2003, a Nordic force package up to
brigade level for Peace Support Operations. These troops could be used in both
EU and NATO-led operations, as well as UN and possible OSCE-led
cooperates with NATO in numerous ways. Finland signed the Partnership
for Peace (PfP) Framework Document in May 1994 and joined the Euro-Atlantic
Partnership Council (EAPC) in June 1997. Finland supports the strengthening of
the PfP and the participation of Partners in the planning of crisis management
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